The Maliki Ash’ari tradition is the oldest tradition on the American continent, brought here by our African brothers who endured the unbearable and even had their hands amputated for teaching their kids Arabic and Qur’an.
The Roanoke colony likely had the same tradition as well, as they probably were from the ethnically-diverse Corsairs captured and enslaved by Spain when Francis Drake freed them and brought them to Roanoke. However, some may have been from Ottoman Hanafi territories–but half of them molded in with the Native Americans and the other half were returned to the Ottoman Empire.
As we already know, many Latinos have Morisco blood and the Andalusians were also Maliki Ash’aris.
As for Western Europeans, thousands, perhaps even a few million, actually converted to Islam and left for North Africa a few centuries ago (which, as we know, is known for its Maliki Ash’ari tradition). They were called pejoratively “renegades” and much slander and lies were levied at them by the scared European Christians who were worried about the potential rise in conversion and immigration. The ease of conversion to Islam and the lack of regret among those who had converted was surprising, and their economic success (in contrast with Europe’s feudal system) and lack of divine retribution for converts because of their “heresy” was unsettling. Some took positions in the Ottoman government, some actually even stayed Christian and lived as Christians, some started businesses, and some joined the Corsairs. So some joined the Maliki tradition and others joined the Ottoman Hanafi tradition. Though typically in the Ottoman Empire, the government was actually run by Europeans and the religion staffed by Turks and other ethnicities with deeper roots.
So the Maliki Ash’ari tradition is the oldest and most deeply-rooted in the Americas and among American blood. And may Allah help us Americans to reconnect with our tradition–all of us: African Americans, Native Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos.
TURKS, MOORS, & MORISCOS IN EARLY AMERICA – Essay at bottom of list
PatrickBensen.me – Blog of Patrick Bensen and info about his upcoming book about the Corsairs
A Christian Turn’d Turk – A play about the conversion of the pirate John Ward to Islam. Useful as a case study for what was going on at the time, especially under the section “apostasy.”